Leftshift’s Weblog

Techniques to improve your code

The Chicken Dance

Well, that’s what it sounds like when my antipodean friends talk about the process of checking in code. Seriously though, development is a complex beast as you realise when you start talking in detail about any of the constituent tasks that a developer is responsible for. Take developers testing responsibilities as an example [which I conveniently ran a workshop on last week]. These break down into the two broad areas of verification and validation.

A workshop to figure these things out is a very useful tool and one that I would recommend at your workplace. It is truly incredible the depth of coverage you can get in a topic with ten people sitting around the table. We spent 5-10 minutes where everybody wrote down each responsibility or task they could think of on a separate post-it. We went through a whole pack of post-it notes [admittedly with a bit of duplication]. We then took it in turns to stick the post-its on the board, roughly grouping and recognising duplicates as we did so. I’m currently busy writing these up for our internal wiki. Making developers aware of the broad range of testing tasks and supporting this with automation of acceptance tests, unit tests etc. will really help improve the quality of the code delivered to the QA teams and eventually the customer. Ideally everybody will pick up on this and you will end up with a zero defect culture.


12 May 2008 Posted by | Code Quality, Metrics | , | Leave a comment

Standards and Guidelines are Useless

That is quite a bold statement I just made, but bear with me. I’ve come to the opinion that all standards, guidelines and best practices are useless if they only exist in a document somewhere. Invariably this document gets lost down the back of the enterprise sofa weeks after its initial distribution. Developers stop refering to it, it goes out of date and new developers are unaware of its existence.

The good news is that this problem can be solved quite simply. Automation is the answer and it places even more importance in having a sensible CI [Continuous Integration] strategy. All of the things that are truly important to the quality of your code can be automated. Standards and guidelines can be checked. By integrating these checks into your build platform developers receive regular feedback that they are more likely to act upon. Nightly builds can be set up to provide a full suite of information about adherence to standards and guidelines along with build health. These can include for example the standard stuff such as unit test coverage alongside naming convention, web accessibility & code readability checks. When the standard or guideline is changed developers get feedback about this at worst by the next day.

By eliminating waste in the feedback loop and ensuring that code is tested against the standards in place, you will quickly start to see the real effect of these standards and take an agile approach to evolving them to improve your codebase.

7 May 2008 Posted by | Code Quality, Metrics | , , | 1 Comment

The 56 Complexity Point Dash

Tracking your progress is traditionally done through the use of burn up / burn down charts. I’d like to suggest an alternative – The Sprint.

A Sprint Chart
As you can see it resembles a real race where the length of the course is the sum of the complexity points you intend to deliver for that sprint.

The running line up is:

Lane 1 [Green] : The Pacemaker. Each day she runs the same amount and crosses the finish line at the end of the sprint.

Lane 2 [Red] : You / your team. Every time you complete a feature you can move your runner forward by that amount.

Lane 3…N [Blue and Yellow] : You / your team for the last N sprints. Progress as measured in a previous sprint.

If this information is captured every day, it’d be fairly trivial to track your progress in a visual manner. Simply printing each day and flipping the pages would give you an animated view of your progress throughout the sprint. You can see how far off the pace you are and how you are doing compared to previous sprints. You could even create an animation and send it to the team each day.

1 May 2008 Posted by | Metrics | , | Leave a comment


Cecil is a library to inspect and generate programs in the CIL format. CIL is the intermediate language format generated when compiling .NET programs.

The interesting thing about Cecil is that it gives you a model of your code, in a similar way to the System.Reflection namespace in .NET. The really important bit though IMO is not documented very well. You can inspect the code and the debug symbols tradionally stored in a .pdb file. The .pdb file contains information that links the IL instruction being examined back to the source code file. It contains the filename, and start and end points within the file.

One way this information is useful is if you want to calculate the number of lines of code within a method, type or assembly. The debugger defines a set of points of interest in the code known as Sequence Points. Cecil allows you to access this information. To do so download the latest version binaries [0.6]. Three DLLs are included in the download; the main Mono.Cecil.dll plus two libraries for accessing the debug symbols. One library targets standard .NET pdbs and the other targets Mono mdbs. We’re going to use the Mono.Cecil.Pdb.dll in this example. You’ll need to reference both the main and pdb libraries.

To load an assembly, get its main module and load the associated debug symbols you’ll need to do something like this [obviously ensuring that you write the unit tests first]:

string unit = Assembly.GetExecutingAssembly().Location;
AssemblyDefinition assemblyDef = AssemblyFactory.GetAssembly(unit);
ModuleDefinition modDef = assemblyDef.MainModule;
PdbFactory pdbFactory =
new PdbFactory();
ISymbolReader reader = pdbFactory.CreateReader(modDef, unit);

The first line mearly stores the location of the current executing assembly. Change this to point to whichever assembly you may be interested in. The next two lines get the Cecil Assembly definition and the main module. The rest of the code does the interesting part. It creates a symbol reader using the PdbFactory, and the symbols are loaded by the main module using this reader. From this point on you can get at interesting stuff. An alternative to loading the symbols for a whole module is to use the ISymbolReader.Read method to load the symbols for a MethodBody.

So how can you use this? To navigate the code from the Assembly down to the IL instruction level, Cecil provides the following hierachy

AssemblyDefinition > ModuleDefinitionCollection > TypeDefinitionCollection > MethodDefinitionCollection

A MethodDefinition contains a Body property which contains a list of IL Instructions that make up the code. Each instruction has a SequencePoint property. Note that for a lot of IL Instructions this property is null. This basically means that the debugger is not interested in that instruction. This is to be expected as one line of code in C# can generate many IL instructions. Where it is not null, the sequence point contains the path to the source code file and the start / end column and line within the file. When you debug a project using visual studio it uses the same information to highlight the code in the IDE.

You can use this information to help write metrics tools [such as NDepend]

30 April 2008 Posted by | .NET, Metrics | , , | 1 Comment

Hello World

The main emphasis of this blog is to help developers improve the quality of code they create and maintain.

24 April 2008 Posted by | Code Quality | | Leave a comment