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Techniques to improve your code

Mono Cecil, Visited and Observed

As I mentioned in a previous post, Mono Cecil is library that lets you load and browse the types of a .NET assembly. For a simple [but potentially useful] look at what you can do I’ll show you how you might go about listing all of the methods in an assembly. What will our test look like? Well, we will start with the assertion that the number of methods returned is what we expect:

[Test]
public void ShouldReturnNumberOfMethodsTest()
{
    Assert.AreEqual(expectedMethodCount, actualMethodCount);
}

Pretty simple so far, but we have a couple of design decisions to make to complete our test code. I’ll call our class that does the work AssemblyExaminer. It will need to expose a list of methods so I can get the count. It will also need to be passed an assembly as input. To avoid subtle state related bugs we will pass this in the constructor and make our class immutable. Looking at the Mono.Cecil namespace the AssemblyFactory.GetAssembly method has three overloads. One takes a filename, one a byte array and the other a stream. For our purposes a stream provides us with the best level of abstraction. With all that in mind here is our [almost] completed unit test:

[Test]
public void ShouldReturnNumberOfMethodsTest()
{
    const int expectedMethodCount = ?;
    using (Stream testAssembly = GetTestAssembly())
    {
        AssemblyExaminer examiner = new AssemblyExaminer(testAssembly);
        int actualMethodCount = examiner.Methods.Count;
        Assert.AreEqual(expectedMethodCount, actualMethodCount);
    }
}

Two things remain. One is simply replacing the ? with the number of methods I expect to find. The other is spinning up the stream containing the assembly. I have called the method that creates the stream GetTestAssembly. We’ll see how to implement that in a minute. Continue reading

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18 July 2008 Posted by | .NET, Metrics | , | 2 Comments

Inventive uses of NUnit #2

Number two in a series of posts investigating the more ‘creative’ uses of NUnit. This time around we look at the school register.

NUnit test for a class register

NUnit test for a class register

With collective ownership you could get the kids to update their own unit test. I’m sure that would work and nobody else would make any other assertion in the code:]

14 July 2008 Posted by | .NET | , | Leave a comment

Refactoring Made Easier

JetBrains TeamCity is a build management and continuous integration platform which supports .NET and Java. Having set up TeamCity and played with it for a couple of weeks, I’m very impressed by the slick UI and features provided out of the box. These include a set of code quality features.   Even better is the fact that the professional version is free.

One of the things that really impressed me is the duplicates finder. As the name suggests it detects duplicate code and currently works with Java, C# [up to 2.0] and VB [up to 8.0].  This helps you target the areas that need refactoring.

Java duplicates in TeamCity

Alongside the duplicates [Java example above] a ‘cost’ is calculated. I’m not sure of the algorithm used, but it seems fairly sensible and the cost has some relation to the amount of code that is repeated. You can use this to help prioritise your refactoring. To setup your build simply set the runner to be the duplicates finder. Continue reading

6 July 2008 Posted by | .NET, Code Quality, Continuous Integration, Metrics | , , | Leave a comment

Recently Released

The first beta of NHibernate Version 2 is now available. NHibernate is an ORM based on Java’s Hibernate.

Also out now is the 3rd preview of Microsofts ASP.NET MVC implementation.

3 July 2008 Posted by | .NET | | Leave a comment

Inventive uses of NUnit #1

The first in a series of articles that describe how you can go about using a testing framework in an ‘interesting’ way. First up is the shopping list.

NUnit Shopping List

What could be easier than updating a line of code, recompiling and running the test suite whilst out shopping?

A Test for Cheese

23 June 2008 Posted by | .NET | , | Leave a comment

Consistency Is Key

I’m sure I am not the only one who puzzles over Microsoft’s naming conventions for C#. I understand the Pascal and camel casing rules, but what I don’t get is the exception made for two letter acronyms. I’m looking at creating a dictionary of my code so that I can start to see patterns and opportunities for re-use. To do this I need to be able to break up the name of a method or class into its constituent parts. Regular expressions seemed like a good way to go. It is fairly trivial to write a regex that matches the parts that make up a Pascal and camel cased identifier. What makes this tricky is the exception for short acronyms. Here is my attempt:

Regex splitName = new Regex(@”^I(?=(\p{Lu}{2})*(\p{Lu}\p{Ll}|$))|(^\p{Ll}+|\p{Lu}\p{Ll}+|\p{Lu}{2})”);

It breaks down like so: Continue reading

10 June 2008 Posted by | .NET, Code Quality | , | Leave a comment

Cecil

Cecil is a library to inspect and generate programs in the CIL format. CIL is the intermediate language format generated when compiling .NET programs.

The interesting thing about Cecil is that it gives you a model of your code, in a similar way to the System.Reflection namespace in .NET. The really important bit though IMO is not documented very well. You can inspect the code and the debug symbols tradionally stored in a .pdb file. The .pdb file contains information that links the IL instruction being examined back to the source code file. It contains the filename, and start and end points within the file.

One way this information is useful is if you want to calculate the number of lines of code within a method, type or assembly. The debugger defines a set of points of interest in the code known as Sequence Points. Cecil allows you to access this information. To do so download the latest version binaries [0.6]. Three DLLs are included in the download; the main Mono.Cecil.dll plus two libraries for accessing the debug symbols. One library targets standard .NET pdbs and the other targets Mono mdbs. We’re going to use the Mono.Cecil.Pdb.dll in this example. You’ll need to reference both the main and pdb libraries.

To load an assembly, get its main module and load the associated debug symbols you’ll need to do something like this [obviously ensuring that you write the unit tests first]:

string unit = Assembly.GetExecutingAssembly().Location;
AssemblyDefinition assemblyDef = AssemblyFactory.GetAssembly(unit);
ModuleDefinition modDef = assemblyDef.MainModule;
PdbFactory pdbFactory =
new PdbFactory();
ISymbolReader reader = pdbFactory.CreateReader(modDef, unit);
modDef.LoadSymbols(reader);

The first line mearly stores the location of the current executing assembly. Change this to point to whichever assembly you may be interested in. The next two lines get the Cecil Assembly definition and the main module. The rest of the code does the interesting part. It creates a symbol reader using the PdbFactory, and the symbols are loaded by the main module using this reader. From this point on you can get at interesting stuff. An alternative to loading the symbols for a whole module is to use the ISymbolReader.Read method to load the symbols for a MethodBody.

So how can you use this? To navigate the code from the Assembly down to the IL instruction level, Cecil provides the following hierachy

AssemblyDefinition > ModuleDefinitionCollection > TypeDefinitionCollection > MethodDefinitionCollection

A MethodDefinition contains a Body property which contains a list of IL Instructions that make up the code. Each instruction has a SequencePoint property. Note that for a lot of IL Instructions this property is null. This basically means that the debugger is not interested in that instruction. This is to be expected as one line of code in C# can generate many IL instructions. Where it is not null, the sequence point contains the path to the source code file and the start / end column and line within the file. When you debug a project using visual studio it uses the same information to highlight the code in the IDE.

You can use this information to help write metrics tools [such as NDepend]

30 April 2008 Posted by | .NET, Metrics | , , | 1 Comment